Two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy uses multiple electromagnetic pulses to infer the properties of a complex system. A paradigmatic class of target systems are molecular aggregates, for which one can obtain information on the eigenstates, various types of static and dynamic disorder and on relaxation processes. However, two-dimensional spectra can be difficult to interpret without precise knowledge of how the signal components relate to microscopic Hamiltonian parameters and system-bath interactions. Here we show that two-dimensional spectroscopy can be mapped in the microwave domain to highly controllable Rydberg quantum simulators. By porting 2D spectroscopy to Rydberg atoms, we firstly open the possibility of its experimental quantum simulation, in a case where parameters and interactions are very well known. Secondly, the technique may provide additional handles for experimental access to coherences between system states and the ability to discriminate different types of decoherence mechanisms in Rydberg gases. We investigate the requirements for a specific implementation utilizing multiple phase coherent microwave pulses and a phase cycling technique to isolate signal components.